Review of Merrill’s first principles was the first activity in the virtual residency. When we create instruction, we include activities for each one of these principles. Look for instances where these things are happening. Real-world problem – you don’t take people in space, but rather what’s going on in space? How well does instruction fit with all of these principles.
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (2013). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26(2), 43-71. doi:10.1002/piq.21143
Reviewer 1: “I think it looks great! Everything is easy to understand and all your activities and forms of evaluation make sense.”
Formative assessment is to modify or improve instruction. Students have a central part in it. It promotes learning through goals (+ criteria for success), feedback (central function of F.A.; where to improve and how), and (active) questioning (reflection) in the classroom. It increases self-efficacy, improve metacognitive awareness, motivation. Purpose: students take charge of their own learning. Their thinking must become visible. Everyone has to participate. Feedback promotes revision and rethinking. F.A. is very helpful bot for high students but for low and average.
Grades—bad idea, rather moving towards the learning goal. Comments + grades = bad (focus on comparisons, competitions). Example: “This has 3 errors. Find what they are and correct”, “The answer is … Can you find out a way to work it out?”, “You’ve used substitution. Try elimination this time.”
Other names: diagnostic testing, assessment for learning, educative assessment, classroom assessment.
Chapter 7. A Framework for Instructional Strategy Design
DeBorah Little: These storyboards—is this a tool that you take in when you make a pitch to try to sell a service?
Another 2.5 hours, and mu storyboard is complete. I again sent it to the 3 reviewers to take a look and possibly comment. This time I had to create two new storyboards in place of the previous grammar section and a section that duplicated watching the movie in class. So this requires certain intellectual efforts.
I spent 3.5 hours today to redesign the initial storyboard, using the critique of the reviewers as well as my own knowledge of what can be done to enhance the instructional unit. The easiest part was to eliminate that which was unimportant. It was relatively simple, because certain things were off the wall. For instance, reviewing grammar at the end of Class Session 2 is absolutely unnecessary, because there are tutorials that students can and should watch outside the class. Also, duplicate exercises were removed. One of the reasons for duplicate exercises was that the teacher possible didn’t know that online homework has already required students to do certain exercises. Finally, I reduced the size of the words and phrases to mandatory learning from 93 to 60. Because students will have to learn them in one sitting, it is reasonable not to overload them. Plus, at least 20 words in the lists repeat the words that students definitely learned in previous Spanish classes.
I received the critique for my storyboard from three people. Major points:
- Add evaluation and debrief
- Check timing and the elements that go in different class sessions
- Make practice activities more interactive
What would I want to change?
- Re-think the structure (remove explicit grammar teaching, reduce warm-up activities, remove duplication of watching a movie, extend time to practice vocabulary in speech, inform of objectives)
- Prepare vocab activities (lexical approach)
- Prepare assessment activities
- Focus on feedback and promote self-reflections
- Include writing activities
Storyboarding helps convince people in business (by realistically showing what will happen)—a visual that makes simple (if created well enough) and shows the client the problem, what can be done, and what can be done to close the gap. Tiffany used the storyboards in work, not just for the class. Has to look good and be very clear. IDs selling solutions to performance gaps – knowledge, skills, or attitudes deficiencies.