Luca, J., & Oliver, R. (2002). Developing an instructional design strategy to support generic skills development. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Australiasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education. Auckland, New Zealand.

Generic skills: “working in teams, communicating clearly, personal and interpersonal skills, problem solving, understanding technology and using mathematical concepts efficiently” (p. 1). Deep learning is the outcome of “learning settings that focus on processes as distinct from products” (p. 2). The emphasis is on both process and product of learning. Settings should: have/provide authentic content, encourage reflection among learners, promote self-regulated learning.

“Developing learners’ skills in self-directed learning has value both as an educational learning strategy for promoting deep and meaningful learning, and also as a required graduate attribute to encourage life long learning” (p. 4). “Priority is placed on students setting goals and objectives for their learning, planning the learning, engaging in learning activities, monitoring and regulating how the learning progresses and maintaining motivation to continue learning. Other self-directed learner activities include the use of learner contracts, negotiating learning needs, setting goals and priorities, considering learning methods, peer mentoring, applying performance criteria, finding resources needed for learning, and learners deciding when learning is complete” (pp. 3-4).

self-regulated learning

Reflection is a deliberate act of thinking about past or future events in which a perceived problem or activity is examined so that a reasoned response may be tested” (p. 4). Activities: “revision, reconstruction and rethinking of ideas and problem solving sequences, exchanging ideas, commenting on others’ work, engaging in critical self-assessment self and peer assessment activities, and using reflective journals” (p. 5).


Authentic activities provide students with opportunities to develop knowledge and skills needed for specific contexts, jobs and roles. These learning environments should preserve the full context of the situation and allow for the natural complexity of the real world” (p. 5). “Learning activities used to promote authentic context include problem-based learning, real world activities, project work, teamwork, simulation, roleplay, work experience, practical work and industry visits” (p. 5).


For authentic tasks, self-direction, and reflection there should be well-designed learning tasks, learning supports, and learning resources.


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